Update on PTSD 2017: hope!

I have just spent a week in San Antonio, Texas at the AAFP FMX: American Academy of Family Physicians Family Medicine Experience.

Whew. Long acronym.

However, I attended two programs on PTSD. One was a three hour offsite one put on by the U. of Texas Health Sciences Department of Family Medicine. The other was a one hour program about active duty military and PTSD.

The biggest message for me is HOPE. Hope for treatment, hope for diagnosis, hope for destigmatization, hope for remission. I am not sure if we should call it a “cure”. Once a diabetic, always a diabetic, even if you lose 100 pounds.

In medical school 1989-1993 I learned that PTSD existed but that was about it. There was no discussion of medicines, treatment, diagnosis or cure.

Ditto residency. I learned much more about psychiatry reading about addiction and alcoholism and Claudia Black’s books then I did in residency.

Fast forward to 2010, when I opened my own clinic. I worked as a temp doc at Madigan Army Hospital for three months.

The military was aggressively pursuing treatment and diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and traumatic brain injury. I worked in the walk in clinic from 6:30 to 8:00 four days a week. Every walk in had to fill out a screen for depression. They were trying to stem the suicides, the damage, the return to civilian life problems and addiction too. They were embedding a behavioral health specialist in every section of the military. I was amazed at how hard the military was working on behavioral health.

In 2010 I took the buprenorphine course, which is really a crash course in addiction medicine, at the University of Washington Med School. I took it because it was free (I had just opened a clinic) and I thought we were as a nation prescribing WAY too many damned opioids. Yes! I found my tribe!

This gave me a second DEA number, to prescribe buprenorphine for opiate overuse, but also hooked me up with the University of Washington Telemedicine. I presented about 30 opiate overuse problem patients (anonymously, there is a form) to the team via telemedicine over the next year. The team includes a pain specialist, addiction specialist, psychiatrist and physiatrist. They do a 30 minute teaching session and then discuss 1-2 cases. They often do not agree with each other. They reach consensus and fax recommendations to me. The Friday addiction one was shut down and now I present to the Wednesday chronic pain one.

But, you say, PTSD? Well, chronic pain patients and opiate overuse patients have a very high rate of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. It’s often hard to sort out. Are they self medicating because they have been traumatized or were they addicted first and then are depressed/traumatized and anxious? And what do you treat first?

There was an ADHD program at this conference that said we should deal with the ADHD first. One of the PTSD courses said deal with the PTSD first. The thing is, you really have to address BOTH AT ONCE.

Tools? PHQ-9, GAD-7, PCLC and there is an ADHD one too. These are short screening tools. I don’t diagnose with them. I use them to help guide therapy along with the invaluable urine drug screen. Love your patients but verify. That is, the chronic pain patient and the addiction patient tell me the same thing: but one is lying. I don’t take it personally because they are lying to themselves. Also, studies have shown that many patients lie, about their hypertension medicine or whatever. If they have to choose between food and medicine…. I think food may come first.

The San Antonio program has a behavioral health person embedded in their clinic (like a diamond) and if a PTSD screen is positive, the doctor or provider can walk them over and introduce them and get them set up. This is more likely to get the person to follow up, because there is still stigma and confusion for ALL mental health diagnoses and people often won’t call the counselor or psychologist or god forbid, psychiatrist.

They have a protocol for a short term four week treatment. Four weeks? You can’t treat PTSD in four weeks! Well, sometimes you can. But if you are making no progress, the person is referred on if they will go. I have the handouts. I do not have an embedded behavioral health person. I wish I did. I am thinking of setting a trap for one or luring them in to my clinic somehow, or asking if the AAFP would have one as a door prize next year, but…. meanwhile, I may do a trial of DIY. No! you say, you are not a shrink! Well, half of family medicine is actually sneaky behavioral health and I have the advantage of being set up to have more time with patients. Time being key. Also I have seven years of work with the telemedicine and access to that psychiatrist. Invaluable.

So what is the most common cause of civilian PTSD? Motor vehicle accidents. I didn’t know that. I would have said assault/rape. But no, it’s MVAs. Assault and rape are up there though, with a much higher PTSD rate if it is someone the victim knows or thought loved them. Rates in the US general population is currently listed at 1%, but at 12% of patients in primary care clinics. What? One in ten? Yes, because they show up with all sorts of chronic physical symptoms.

Re the military, it’s about the same. BUT noncombatant is 5%. High intensity combat has a PTSD risk of 25%, which is huge. One in four. Not a happy thing. In 2004 less then half the military personnel who needed care received it. PTSD needs to be destigmatized, prevented, treated compassionately and cured.

The risk of suicidality: 20% of PTSD people per year attempt. One in five.

Men tend to have more aggressiveness, women more depression.

Back to that PCLC. A score of over 33 is positive, over 55 is severe. There is sub threshold PTSD and it does carry a suicide risk as well. In treatment, a score drop of 10 is great, 5-10 is good and under 5, augment the treatment. Remember, the PCLC is a screening tool, not a diagnosis. I often ask people to fill out the PCLC, the GAD7 and the PHQ9 to see which is highest, to help guide me with medicines or therapy. If I need a formal diagnostic label, off to psychiatry or one of my PhD psychologists or neuropsych testing. Meanwhile, I am happy to use an adjustment disorder label if I need a label. If the patient is a veteran and says he or she has PTSD, ok, will use that.

Untreated PTSD, the rate of remission is one third at a year, the average remission is 64 months.

Treated PTSD, the rate of remission is one half at a year, and the average duration is 36 months. So treatment is not perfect by any means.

Pharmacology: FDA approved medicines include paroxetine and fluoxetine, and both venlafaxine and one other SSRI help.

Benzodiazepines make it worse! Do not use them! They work at the same receptor as alcohol, remember? So alcohol makes it worse too. There is no evidence for marijuana, but marijuana increases anxiety disorders: so no, we think it’s a bad idea. Those evil sleep medicines, for “short term use” (2 weeks and 6 weeks), ambien and sonata, they are related to benzos so I would extrapolate to them, don’t use them, bad.

Prazosin helps with sleep for some people. It lowers blood pressure and helps with enlarged prostates, so the sleep thing is off label and don’t stop it suddenly or the person could get rebound hypertension (risk for stroke and heart attack). I have a Vietnam veteran who says he has not slept so well since before Vietnam.

Part of the treatment for the PTSD folks at the U. of Texas Medical Center is again, destigmatization, normalization, education, awareness and treatment tools.

Hooray for hope for PTSD and for more tools to work with to help people!

fab four

This is for the Daily Prompt: recreate. The American Academy of Family Physicians had a celebration last night at the end of the conference and included a painter who recreated this familiar faces right in front of a large audience. Then it was auctioned off to the highest bidder to fund raise for Houston hurricane victims. Bravo!

 

The pending healthcare bill

I’ve just seen an article from the American Academy of Family Physicians that more and more solo and small practices are closing.

Call your Congressperson, because the thing that is most likely to close my small clinic and clinics near you is the latest healthcare bill passing.

That is, to be even more specific, the thing that will most likely close MY one doctor clinic is THAT I WON’T BE ABLE TO AFFORD HEALTH INSURANCE.

Really? Oh, yes.

I was sick for ten months, June of 2014 until April of 2015. I managed to hire a physician’s assistant by November of 2014 and I returned to work April of 2015. I was only allowed to work half time initially, for a year. Actually, quarter time. Because the latest article on primary care has average salaries. What interests me is that every doctor they interviewed who is earning the “average” is working 60-70 hours a week.

So when I returned to work I was allowed to work half days. That is, four hours a day. So, 20 hours a week. One third to one quarter time.

Also I was paying for my own insurance and I had a $5000.00 deductible. Which I had to pay in both 2014 and 2015. I also had to spend retirement money and savings to keep the clinic open. Negative earnings and using up savings in 2014 and 2015. I worked 20 hours a week for a year. And guess what? My income for 2015 qualified me for Obamacare in 2016.

No deductible. By April of 2016 I am released to “full time”. But I have learned my lesson. My sister died in 2012 and my father in 2013 and these deaths were the trigger for me getting sick. I can’t retire yet. I have burned through savings for three years. I choose to work 40 hours a week.

This means that I stop seeing patients by 2:00 pm. I still do an eight hour day because there is at least three hours of phone calls, insurance prior authorizations, lab results, x-ray results, specialist letters — like yesterday. The specialist says the patient should have an MRI. But the patient is a veteran. So the specialist says I should order it. That means filling out the paperwork for the VA authorization, mailing the order to the patient, calling the patient to remind them that triwest will throw my order away unless the patient calls to get the test authorized. Yep. And the specialist gets paid 3-4 times what I make. How nice.

I also choose longer visits. The local hospital kicked me out of their clinics because I protested about a daily patient quota. I was not diplomatic. And I don’t care, because two years later they decided I was right and lowered it. And I like my private clinic better.

BUT if Congress passes this healthcare bill and I return to over $1000.00 per month health insurance for me and a 19 year old daughter, and with a $5000.00 deductible…. I don’t know. I think I will run a Go Fund Me and ask President Trump and my Congresspeople to donate to pay my health insurance and keep me open.

And by the way: I think Congress should have the same health care as their constituents. Give the ones over 65 medicare and the ones under 65 medicaid. Let them experience what older Americans and disabled and poor experience. And don’t let them bypass it with cash, either.

Call Congress. Stop the bill. Thank you.

 

I am a board certified board eligible family doctor for over 30 years, who has chosen to do rural medicine the entire time. I am small and ordinary…. like this song sparrow.

For the Daily Prompt: meddle.

It’s about caring

I described helping a woman bring her bad LDL cholesterol down from 205 to 158 with two clinic visits the other day, and someone said, “I can replace you with a teacher who is much cheaper. Why should you go to medical school to talk about the things people already know? Let’s free you up to do heart surgery or something important.”

Well? What about that? Is my career as a doctor wasted because I am in primary care? I am in Family Practice and I spend tons of time counseling people about diet, exercise, lifestyle choices.

My work is not wasted.

If all we had to do was give people information, we have the information. Every magazine and newspaper screams at us: “Obesity! Stop smoking! Exercise for health! Eat right! Don’t eat junk food!”

Why do two visits with me make a difference?

People do not feel valuable and do not feel cared for in our culture. In the same magazine with articles about losing weight, getting organized, shouting “You can do it!” there are multiple advertisements for sugary desserts and things to consume. My spouse used to joke, “If I get (whatever he wanted at that time) then I’ll be a better person.”

I see pregnant woman who can stop smoking while pregnant, to care for the baby on board, but who often can’t extend the same caring to themselves after the child is born.

The history is often listed as the most important part of a clinic visit. I agree, but not just for diagnosing illness. I am listening to the person, and now with a laptop, I am recording their history. Why are they here today, what medical problems have they had, allergies, surgeries, do they smoke, are they married, do they have children? I want a picture of the person and I must listen hard. What do they reveal about their trust in medicine, about favorable or unfavorable medical interactions in the past, about what they understand or believe about their health? The visit is a negotiation. I need their view of what is happening and their questions.

The physical exam is often an interlude for me. I look at the persons throat, in their ears, listen to their heart and lungs. And part of me is collating the information that I’ve gathered, so that we can move to the next step: analysis and plan.

If I am doing a preventative check, a wellness visit, a physical, whatever you want to call it, I name the positives and negatives. Are they exercising regularly, have they stopped smoking, are they trying to eat a good diet? I name these. Are they lucky enough to have four grandparents who lived to 102 or do the men in their family die at 52 of a heart attack? A 55 year old man who has lost multiple relatives in their early 50s is surprised that he’s alive, and starting to wonder if it might be worth attending a little to his own health. He is a bit shy about hoping that he might not die tomorrow, and ready for encouragement in taking care of himself.

The visit is really about caring. Many people in our culture do not feel cared for. Moms are supposed to care for everyone else. Parents are very very busy, trying to take care of children and have jobs. People are afraid that they will lose their job, their insurance, their homes. We try to do the tasks of adulthood: have the career, find the true love, raise the children, achieve the lifestyle, home and place in our society. And many people feel that they are failing or fear failing. They have not gotten the job they hoped for. They have a house, but it is a huge amount of work. They are working very hard, but there are still so many things they would like to do or see or have. They have become overweight, they have gotten hooked on tobacco, their children are not turning out as they’d planned, the ungrateful wretches. And their parents’ health is crumbling, and in all the chaos, why would the person attend to themselves? The cell phone rings, the computer beckons, it’s time to work, to cook, to clean, to stay on the hamster wheel of life.

In clinic, for a few moments, this person is the center. They explain their health to me. They are painting a picture of their life. A patient will say, “I’ve been worrying about my mother, my son, my spouse, and I don’t take the time to exercise or eat right.”

And I say, “I hope that your mother, son, spouse does better. But you are important too. It is wonderful that you have stopped smoking, excellent! But we’re both worried about your cholesterol, right? It is too high. How are we going to take care of you? What can you fit in?”

Most people do not want to start with a medicine. They want to take care of themselves, too. They are willing to make lifestyle changes. They need encouragement and permission and to come back to see how it is going. What they need is my caring. And I do care.

I used to think that somehow complex patients would gravitate to me. But that is not true: the truth is that everyone is complex. Each person has layers and thoughts and feelings: fears and joys. I barely scratch the surface. It is the caring that is most important and each person that I see is important.

At the end of the visit, I print my note. I give it to the person. “Check it. Tell me if something is wrong. I cannot change the note, but I can put an addendum.” I see that people are shy and often show some confusion. Two pages? Single spaced? About me?

Yes. About you.

written in 2010 and published first here: http://everything2.com/title/It%2527s+about+caring?searchy=search

I took the photo in 2004, a school overnight trip to explore settlers 100 years ago….

Rural medicine crisis: Job offers

One of the signs that we are entering a worse crisis for rural medicine is job offers.

I am starting to keep the email job offers: so far the record is from Texas, a random out of the blue job offer for $500,000 yearly.

One half million dollars for a Family Practice job. I won’t take it. I like my clinic and anyhow, the pace they would set me to work is burning out physicians. They are quitting, though some die instead. A recent article said that this year a physician poll reports the number at burnout this year has risen from 40% to 50%.The job offers roll in. I get phone calls, emails, mailing and now my cat is getting rural family medicine job offers. Really. Desperate times.

Years ago I read that only 30% of family practice doctors are willing to take a rural job and that only 30% of those are willing to do obstetrics in a rural area. I did obstetrics as part of my practice from 1996 to 2009. I stopped when I opened my own practice, because the malpractice price tag is three times as much and my rural hospital was grumpy at me. Starting in my third year of medical school, I did deliveries for 19 years. During my nine years here, the cesarean sections were done by the general surgeons and we did not have an OB-gyn. I called Swedish Hospital Perinatology when I needed help. I got to know them well enough that if I had someone in preterm labor I would call and find out who was on call BEFORE I chose a medicine, because I knew which perinatologist liked terbutaline and which one would rather I would skip it and use procardia. They were fighting out the research: I didn’t know who was right, but it is a huge benefit to have your consultant be happy with your choice if you have to lifeflight the patient by helicopter at 3 am. With a 25 bed rural hospital, we try not to deliver a baby under 35 weeks, and it’s better to fly the baby in mother if you can’t stop the labor.

Back to the numbers: so 33 out of 100 family practice doctors will take a rural job and only 11 of those are willing to do obstetrics. Our first day of medical school, the faculty said, “Shake hands with the person on your right. Shake hands with the person on your left. At least one of the three of you will be sued for malpractice in your career.” Oh, goody, let’s start training with paranoia. Or is it just being realistic and prepared?

I worked for five years between college and medical school and took the GREs first. I thought I was going to get a PhD. However, I did not want to write a thesis and did not want to be one of three world experts in anything. I had a friend who was one of three world experts in honeybee behavior. I asked what happened when they got together. “We argue.” he said. I also did not want to publish or perish, tenure was becoming more of a problem and anyhow, I did not want to be tied to a university. I got a job working as a lab tech in the National Cancer Institute at NIH in Bethesda. Two years there gave me my answer: primary care is the ultimate generalist. I could work anywhere in the world, in a city, in a small town, and there is endless lifelong learning. I took the MCATs and got into medical school, determined to do primary care.

Back to the job offers: 450K for Iowa. 310K, 350K, signing bonus, paid move, 6 weeks “off” (As far as I can tell it’s always unpaid leave. No sick leave, no paid holidays, no paid leave at all. Do factor that in.)Production bonus. No call or phone calls only. Near a city! In a city! Cheap houses! Excellent schools for your children and 6 stellar golf courses! FP job in Texas, 315K, 4 day work week, signing bonus, loan forgiveness!

The most that I’ve made in a year, I think, is less than half the listed average income for family doctors, though that has risen by nearly 1/3 in the last ten years. And that was enough and I didn’t see enough of my two children and the next year I worked less. I have never made the “MGMA average” for what a family doctor makes and it was more than ten years ago. I am below average in income but I think I am above average in personal happiness and way below average in burn out! I made way less last year, because I was out sick for 6 months. Ok, I lost money. However, my clinic still nearly covered expenses and stayed open, with no provider from early June to November 15, thanks to my receptionist, my patients, the PA who stepped in in November and the other independent practitioners in town. The hospital system refused to help except that they took over my 18 patients on controlled substances… after I threatened to complain to the state that they were refusing care. How nice.

I have an old house and old cars. I have a son finishing college and a daughter about to start. More money to retirement seems like a good idea. I now have 25 years as a member of the American Academy of Family Practice and I am an “old” doctor, because I didn’t retire at 50. I told a younger partner at the hospital that I was deliberately being “below average” because I was going for a career with longevity and wanted to avoid burning out. He left town last year….

From the American Academy of Family Practice paper http://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/rural-practice-paper.html : family practice providers are 15% of physicians in the US, but do 23% of the visits each year. And in rural areas about 42%. “In the U.S. as a whole there is 1 Primary Care physician per 1300 persons while in rural areas the ratio is 1 Primary Care physician per 1910 persons and 1 Family Physician per 2940 persons. In the most rural counties, those with a community of at least 2500 people but no town over 20,000, close to 30,000 additional Family Physicians are needed to achieve the recommended 1:1200 ratio.” I have patients driving from over an hour away because it takes months on the waiting list to see a primary care doctor in their area, and now I am seeing veterans too, because we are more than 40 miles by road from the nearest VA hospital.

This article:  http://doctordrain.journalism.cuny.edu/the-broken-system/family-practice-just-doesnt-pay/ makes me laugh. The student says that 90% of family practice visits are probably coughs and colds. Uh, I would say that less than 5% of mine are. Half of my patients are over 65 and what I do is care for chronic disease with some acute disease thrown in. Diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, rheumatoid arthritis, stage III renal failure, opiate overuse syndrome, depression, PTSD, and the average patient has 4-5 chronic diseases, not one. So the complicated ones have 9 chronic diseases. If they have walking pneumonia and diabetes and are 80, what was their last creatinine so I can adjust the antibiotic dose for their stage three renal failure? My oldest current patient is 98, has diabetes and still is out haying…. rural medicine is never ever boring and some days I think, oh, I would pay to see a simple cold. In the last two months one patient had a four vessel bypass, two have hepatitis C, one has hepatitis B and last month I found one with pertussis: whooping cough. And one has to go to the Big City to see the gynecologist-oncologist….

Rural family medicine is the ultimate generalist. I have to know a little bit of everything and know when to call and ask questions and who to call. Once I had an obstetrics patient with severe and confusing back pain after an epidural. I knew it was something peculiar because we could barely control it with opiates and her back exam was fine. I started calling specialists: ob-gyn didn’t know. The nurse anesthetist. My local internist. An orthopedist. A neurologist, the closest one 90 miles away. Then I got it: I called an anesthesiologist in Denver, 250 miles from where I was. He said it was an inflammatory reaction to the epidural medicine and to give her steroids, which would fix it. It did… but it was my being sure that I had something different on my hands and the stubbornness to keep calling until someone knew the answer….

A friend from college got a PhD in genetics and then went to medical school at the same time as I did. We talked when we picked our specialties. She chose pathology. I chose Family Practice. “Not Family Practice!” she said. “Why not?” I asked. “You can’t know everything!” she said. I said, “Well, no one knows everything. Put three top specialists in a room and they argue about the research. The trick is knowing what you know and what you don’t know.”

We need more primary care physicians and more rural family doctors. And it’s only getting worse.

http://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/rural-practice-paper.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1071163/
http://healthleadersmedia.com/content/COM-208773/Physicians-Offer-Insights-on-Practicing-Rural-Medicine.html
http://www.siumed.edu/academy/jc_articles/Distlehorst_0410.pdf
http://doctordrain.journalism.cuny.edu/the-broken-system/family-practice-just-doesnt-pay/
https://www.aamc.org/newsroom/newsreleases/358410/20131024.html
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2014/05/22/how-many-patients-should-your-doctor-see-each-day/
This blog post helped inspire this article: https://theridiculousmrsh.wordpress.com/2015/11/03/why-i-hope-my-doctor-is-off-having-a-cup-of-tea-as-seen-on-the-huffington-post-yup-actual-huffpost/

The picture is some of the madashell doctors on our first trip stumping for single payer health care in 2009.