With the DSM-V, there is no longer a separate diagnosis of Opioid Dependence and Opioid Addiction. The two are combined into Opioid Use Disorder. Opioid Use disorder can be mild, moderate or severe. And all of the addictive substances have the same list. So here is Tobacco Use Disorder.
According to the DSM-5, there are three Criterion with 15 sub features, and four specifiers to diagnose Tobacco Use disorder. Use of tobacco products over one year has resulted in at least two of the following sub features:
A, Larger quantities of tobacco over a longer period then intended are consumed.
1. Unsuccessful efforts to quit or reduce intake of tobacco
2. Inordinate amount of time acquiring or using tobacco products
3. Cravings for tobacco
4. Failure to attend to responsibilities and obligations due to tobacco use
5. Continued use despite adverse social or interpersonal consequences
6, Forfeiture of social, occupational or recreational activities in favor of tobacco use
7. Tobacco use in hazardous situations
8. Continued use despite awareness of physical or psychological problems directly attributed to tobacco use
B. Tolerance for nicotine, as indicated by:
9. Need for increasingly larger doses of nicotine in order to obtain the desired effect
A noticeably diminished effect from using the same amounts of nicotine
C. Withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of use as indicated by
10. The onset of typical nicotine associated withdrawal symptoms is present
11. More nicotine or a substituted drug is taken to alleviate withdrawal symptoms
Additional specifiers indicate the level of severity of Tobacco use disorder
1. 305.1 (Z72.0) Mild: two or three symptoms are present.
2. 305.1 (F17.200) Moderate: four or five symptoms are present.
3. 305.1 (F17.200) Severe: Six or more Symptoms are present
(American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
We have much more stigma attached to Opioid Use Disorder, but list for Tobacco Use Disorder is the same. Most chronic pain patients on long term opioids qualify for at least mild Opioid Use Disorder. UW Telepain says that if they only have withdrawal and tolerance, then it is questionable if they qualify. They also have said that “we don’t know what to do with patients with mild opioid use disorder”.
I find our culture peculiar. People get accolades for saying “I am quitting smoking.” or “I am a recovering alcoholic.” But it’s not ok to say “I am a recovering opioid addict.” People will shun you. Demonize. Gossip. It’s all addiction, so we should stop the demonization and stigmatization and help people and each other.
The photograph is not a brain. I took this about a month ago: it’s a brain size mushroom that was in the church lawn…